References for the E-Cigarette Regulations


American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). E-Cigarettes and Liquid Nicotine. Available at: Accessed March 30, 2016.

Allen, J. G., Flanigan, S. S., Leblanc, M., Vallarino, J., Macnaughton, P., Stewart, J. H., & Christiani, D. C. (2015). Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes. Environmental Health Perspectives.

Ballbé M, Martínez-Sánchez JM. (2014). Cigarettes vs. E-Cigarettes: Passive Exposure at Home Measured by Means of Airborne Marker and Biomarkers. Environmental Research. 135:76–80.

Behar RZ, Davis B, Wang Y, Bahl V, Lin S, Talbot P. (2014). Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids. Toxicol In Vitro 28: 198–208.

Bjartveit, K. (2005). Health consequences of smoking  1-4 cigarettes per day. Tobacco Control. 14(5):315-320.

Cheng T. (2014) Chemical Evaluation of Electronic Cigarettes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 23:ii11–7.

Colaianni, C. A., et al. (2016). Injuries Caused by Explosion of Electronic Cigarette Devices. Eplasty. 16:ic9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. (2015). National Health Interview Survey Data Brief No. 217. Available at: Accessed March 28, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2015). Comments of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in response to Establishment of a Public Docket; Electronic Cigarettes and the Public Health Workshop Docket No. FDA—2014—N—1936 Cincinnati, Ohio. Available at: Accessed March 28, 2016.

Farsalinos, K. E., Kistler, K. A., Gillman, G., & Voudris, V. (2014). Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosol for the Presence of Selected Inhalation Toxins. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 17(2), 168-174.

Federal Drug Administration. Public Health Focus: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes). Available at: Accessed March 30, 2016.

Federal Drug Administration. FDA 101: Smoking Cessation Products. Available at: Accessed March 30, 2016.

Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, et al. (2013). Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tobacco Control (Published Online First). doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050859.

Jablow, L. M. and Sexton, R. J. (2015). Spontaneous Electronic Cigarette Explosion: A Case Report. American Journal of Medical Case Reports. 3(4):93-94.

Kalkhoran, S., & Glantz, S. A. (2016). E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 4(2):116-128.

Lerner CA, Sundar IK, Yao H, Gerloff J, Ossip DJ, McIntosh S, Robinson R, Rahman I. (2015). Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung. PLoS One 10:e0116732.

Lim HB, Kim SH. (2014). Inhalation of e-cigarette cartridge solution aggravates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice. Toxicol Res 30: 13–18.

McConnell R, et al. (2015). Electronic-Cigarette Use and Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015, PA6-4 (Presentation).

McGrath-Morrow SA, et al. (2015). The effects of electronic cigarette emissions on systemic cotinine levels, weight and postnatal lung growth in neonatal mice. PLoS One 10: e0118344.

McRobbie, H., Bullen, C., Hartmann-Boyce, J., and Hajek, P. (2014). Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12:CD010216.

Rowell, T. R., Lee, S., and Tarran, R. (2015). Select E-Cigarette Flavors Alter Calcium Signaling Cell Viability And Proliferation in Lung Epithelia. American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts.

Sussan TE, Gajghate S, Thimmulappa RK, Ma J, Kim JH, Sudini K, Consolini N, Cormier SA, Lomnicki S, Hasan F, Pekosz A, Biswal S. (2015). Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse model. PLoS One 10: e0116861.

Thornburg, J., Malloy, Q., Cho, S-H. Studabaker, W., and Lee, Y. O. (2014). Exhaled Electronic Cigarette Emissions: What’s Your Secondhand Exposure? RTI Press. Available at: Accessed March 28, 2016.

Thornburg, J. (2016). E-Cigarettes and Vapor Products: State of the Science. Presentation to Orange County Board of Health on January 27, 2016. Available at: Accessed March 28, 2016.

Tierney, P. A., Karpinski, C. D., Brown, J. E., Luo, W., & Pankow, J. F. (2015). Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids. Tobacco Control. TC Online First. 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052175.

Tverdal, A., & Bjartveit, K. (2006). Health consequences of reduced daily cigarette consumption.  Tobacco Control, 15(6), 472-480.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

Vardavas CI, Anagnostopoulos N, Kougias M, Evangelopoulou V, Connolly GN, Behrakis PK. (2012). Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxide. Chest 141: 1400–1406.

Varughese, S., Teschke, K., Brauer, M., Chow, Y., van Netten, C., & Kennedy, S. M. (2005). Effects of theatrical smokes and fogs on respiratory health in the entertainment industry. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 47, 411–418.

Wieslander G, Norback D, Lindgren T. (2001). Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects. Occup Environ Med 58: 649–655.

Williams RS, Derrick J, Ribisl KM. Electronic Cigarette Sales to Minors via the Internet. JAMA pediatrics. 2015;169(3):e1563-e1563.

Wu Q, Jiang D, Minor M, Chu HW. (2014). Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells. PLoS One 9: e108342.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)– Preliminary Data. (2015). Phone communication with Scarlett Steinert, Chapel-Hill Carrboro City Schools, on February 23, 2016.